Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology (East Africa)


Background: Mothers may access medical facilities for their babies and miss opportunities to access family planning (FP) services. This study was undertaken to describe missed opportunities for FP among women within the extended (0–11months) postpartum period from counties participating in Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 (PMA2020) surveys.

Design and setting: This study analysed cross-sectional household survey data from 11 counties in Kenya between 2014 and 2018. PMA2020 uses questions extracted from the Demographic and Health survey (DHS) and DHS defnitions were used. Multivariable logistic regression was used for inferential statistics with p-value of <0.05 considered to be signifcant.

Participants: Women aged 15-49 years from the households visited.

Primary outcome measure: Missed opportunity for family planning/contraceptives (FP/C) counselling.

Results: Of the 34,832 women aged 15-49 years interviewed, 10.9% (3803) and 10.8% (3746) were in the period 0–11months and 12–23months postpartum respectively, of whom, 38.8 and 39.6% respectively had their previous pregnancy unintended. Overall, 50.4% of women 0-23months postpartum had missed opportunities for FP/C counselling. Among women who had contact with health care at the facility, 39.2% of women 0-11months and 44.7% of women 12-23months had missed opportunities for FP/C counselling. Less than half of the women 0-11months postpartum (46.5%) and 64.5% of women 12 – 23months postpartum were using highly efcacious methods. About 27 and 18% of the women 0-11months and 12 – 23months postpartum respectively had unmet need for FP/C. Multivariable analysis showed that being low parity and being from the low wealth quintile signifcantly increased the odds of missed opportunities for FP/C counselling among women in the extended postpartum period, p<0.05.

Conclusions: A large proportion of women have missed opportunities for FP/C counselling within 2 years postpartum. Programs should address these missed opportunities.

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMC Public Health

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.