Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology (East Africa)


Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is being more widely used in simplified cervical cancer screening protocols in low-resource settings. One challenge to successful implementation is the multiple visits necessary to provide results and follow-up. mHealth strategies may reduce visit burden by providing information through text message.

Methods: As part of a cluster-randomized trial to compare HPV testing in clinics and community health campaigns in western Kenya, we carried out a mixed-methods study to assess women's preferences and experiences with different strategies to receive their results. Women could opt to receive their HPV results via text message, cell phone call, home visit, or return clinic visit. We examined overall receipt of results, follow-up rates, and acceptability by notification method.

Results: Among the 4,947 women who underwent HPV-based cervical cancer screening, 1,596 (32%) received results via text message, 1,181 (24%) via cell phone call, 1,563 (32%) via clinic visit, and 605 (12%) via home visit. Women opting for texts or calls were younger and had higher rates of prior cervical cancer screening, HIV testing, and modern contraceptive use (P < .001 for all). Home visits were associated with a significantly higher rate of treatment acquisition (45%) than texts (38%), cell phone calls (38%), and clinic visits (23%; P < .001). In a model controlling for age, prior screening, HIV testing, and contraceptive use, clinic visits remained significantly associated with decreased odds of treatment (adjusted odds ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.69) compared with texts. Among treated women, there was no difference in time to treatment by notification method.

Conclusion: Cell phone-based results notification strategies were preferred by women with greater health-seeking behavior; however, HPV-positive women who received results via home visit were more likely to pursue for treatment.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Global Oncology

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.