Document Type



Internal Medicine (East Africa)


In industrialized countries, viral load monitoring and genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance testing (GART) play an important role in the selection of initial and subsequent combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) regimens. In contrast, resource constraints in Africa limit access to assays that could detect virologic failure, transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and acquired drug resistance to cART. This has adverse consequences for both individual and public health. Although the further roll-out of antiretrovirals for prevention, including preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and universal test and treat (UTT) strategies, could reduce HIV-1 incidence, these strategies may increase TDR [1,2]. Here, we present arguments that the scale up of antiretrovirals use should be accompanied by cost-effective assays for early detection of virologic failure, surveillance of TDR and GART for individual patient management.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

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