Renal dysfunction among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a cross-sectional study.

Document Type



Internal Medicine (East Africa)


Background. HIV-associated renal dysfunction is common among infected patients; the growing burden of this condition may be partly accounted for by improved survival attributed to sustained viral suppression with antiretroviral therapies (ART). Some ART regimens are nephrotoxic and may potentially contribute to renal dysfunction observed in these patients. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence of renal dysfunction among people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART attending the care and treatment clinic (CTC). Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and October 2019 among adults living with HIV on ART for 6 months or more attending CTC at Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 287 participants were screened for proteinuria and microalbuminuria using the Cybow 300 urine analyzer. Serum creatinine was tested for all participants, and it was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the CKD-EPI formula. Results. Out of 287 participants (72.1% female, mean age ± SD: 46.7 ± 10.6 years), about one-third (32.8%) had eGFR less than 90 ml/min, whereas 7% had eGFR less than 60 ml/min. Microalbuminuria and proteinuria were detected in 38.6% and 25.1% of participants, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, predictive determinants for renal dysfunction were higher viral loads (OR 2.5 (1.1–5.8), ), diabetes mellitus (OR 5.5 (1.6–18.6), ), and age above 60 years (OR 2.8 (1.0–7.3), ); however, this was not the case for serum CD4 counts (OR 1.25 (0.7–2.3), ). Conclusion. High prevalence of renal dysfunction among PLHIV on ART was noted in this study. Viral loads above 1000 cp/ml and diabetes mellitus were noted to be associated with increased risk for renal dysfunction.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

Publication (Name of Journal)

International journal of nephrology