Clinical and neuroimaging factors associated with 30-day fatality among indigenous West Africans with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology (East Africa)



Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with a high case fatality rate in resource-limited settings. The independent predictors of poor outcome after ICH in sub-Saharan Africa remains to be characterized in large epidemiological studies. We aimed to determine factors associated with 30-day fatality among West African patients with ICH.


The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicentre, case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Adults aged ≥18 years with spontaneous ICH confirmed with neuroimaging. Demographic, cardiovascular risk factors, clinical features and neuroimaging markers of severity were assessed. The independent risk factors for 30-day mortality were determined using a multivariate logistic regression analysis with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).


Among 964 patients with ICH, 590 (61.2%) were males with a mean age (SD) of 54.3(13.6) years and a case fatality of 34.3%. Factors associated with 30-day mortality among ICH patients include: Elevated mean National Institute of Health Stroke Scale(mNIHSS);(OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.02–1.11), aspiration pneumonitis; (OR 7.17; 95% CI 2.82–18.24), ICH volume > 30mls; OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.02–7.00)) low consumption of leafy vegetables (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.15–0.85).

Conclusion This study identified risk and protective factors associated with 30-day mortality among West Africans with spontaneous ICH. These factors should be further investigated in other populations in Africa to enable the development of ICH mortality predictions models among indigenous Africans.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of the Neurological Sciences