Dietary patterns associated with hypertension among stroke-free indigenous Africans: insights from the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network study

Document Type



Internal Medicine (East Africa)



The dietary factors associated with the high burden of hypertension among indigenous Africans remain poorly understood. We assessed the relationship between dietary patterns and hypertension among indigenous Africans.


In this study, 1550 participants with hypertension matched (for age: ± 5 years, sex and ethnicity) with 1550 participants without hypertension were identified from the stroke-free population in the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network study in Ghana and Nigeria. Food consumption was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and dietary information was summarized using principal component analysis (PCA) to identify seven dietary patterns. Conditional logistic regression was applied to compute the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the risk of hypertension by tertiles of dietary patterns adjusting for age, education, income, smoking, alcohol use, physical inactivity, family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity and salt intake at a two-sided P less than 0.05.


Multivariable-adjusted OR [95% confidence interval (CI)] for risk of hypertension by second and third tertiles [using the lowest (first) tertile as reference] of dietary patterns were 0.62 (0.48-0.80), 0.70 (0.54-0.90) for whole grains and fruit drinks; 0.87 (0.68-1.12), 0.83 (0.64-1.08) for fruits; 0.85 (0.65-1.10), 0.97 (0.75-1.26) for vegetables, legumes and potatoes; 0.78 (0.60-1.00), 0.84 (0.65-1.08) for fried foods and sweetened drinks; 1.13 (0.88-1.45), 0.80 (0.62-1.03) for poultry product and organ meat; 1.11 (0.86-1.43), 0.88 (0.68-1.14) for red meat; and 1.14 (0.88-1.48), 1.09 (0.84-1.43) for processed foods (P < 0.05).


A higher adherence to dietary consumption of whole grains and fruits was inversely associated with low odds of hypertension in this population.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Hypertension