Document Type



Internal Medicine (East Africa)


Background: Histidyl dipeptides such as carnosine are present in a micromolar to millimolar range in mammalian hearts. These dipeptides facilitate glycolysis by proton buffering. They form conjugates with reactive aldehydes, such as acrolein, and attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although these dipeptides exhibit multifunctional properties, a composite understanding of their role in the myocardium is lacking.

Methods and Results: To identify histidyl dipeptide-mediated responses in the heart, we used an integrated triomics approach, which involved genome-wide RNA sequencing, global proteomics, and unbiased metabolomics to identify the effects of cardiospecific transgenic overexpression of the carnosine synthesizing enzyme, carnosine synthase (Carns), in mice. Our result showed that higher myocardial levels of histidyl dipeptides were associated with extensive changes in the levels of several microRNAs, which target the expression of contractile proteins, β-fatty acid oxidation, and citric acid cycle (TCA) enzymes. Global proteomic analysis showed enrichment in the expression of contractile proteins, enzymes of β-fatty acid oxidation, and the TCA in the Carns transgenic heart. Under aerobic conditions, the Carns transgenic hearts had lower levels of short- and long-chain fatty acids as well as the TCA intermediate-succinic acid; whereas, under ischemic conditions, the accumulation of fatty acids and TCA intermediates was significantly attenuated. Integration of multiple data sets suggested that β-fatty acid oxidation and TCA pathways exhibit correlative changes in the Carns transgenic hearts at all 3 levels.

Conclusions: Taken together, these findings reveal a central role of histidyl dipeptides in coordinated regulation of myocardial structure, function, and energetics.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of the American Heart Association

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.