The Department of Surgery is one of the leading surgical teaching institutes in East and Central Africa. With world-class faculty, residents and staff, state of the art facilities and a passion for teaching and research, we are at the forefront of surgical care in the region. The range of subspecialty services offered makes us the go to facility not just for patients but also for those seeking broad-based higher surgical qualifications. We are composed of multiple subspecialties covering the entire scope of practice such as General Surgery, Neurosurgery, Urology, Cardiac, Orthopaedic, Ophthalmology, Paediatric, Plastic Surgery as well as Ear, Nose, Throat, Head & Neck surgery. Our dedicated faculty and staff, advanced facilities and state-of-the-art technologies have earned Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi a great reputation as a leading medical institution and teaching hospital in and around Africa.​

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Submissions from 2022

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Neurosurgery Education Around the World: Africa, Najia El Abbadi, Rime Al Baroudi, Abdesslam El Khamlichi, Mahmood Qureshi, Kalango Kalangu, and Jeff Ntalaja

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Trans-arterial therapy for Fibrolamellar carcinoma: A case report and literature review, M. M. Bernon, Karan Gandhi, H. Allam, S. Singh, J. Kloppers, and E. Jonas

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The Role of Neurosurgery in Global Health Head Trauma, David Clark, Beverly Cheserem, Indira Devi Bhagavatula, Anthony Figaji, and Peter Hutchinson

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The Lancet Breast Cancer Commission: tackling a global health, gender, and equity challenge, Charlotte Elizabeth Coles, Benjamin O. Anderson, David Cameron, Fatima Cardoso, Richard Horton, Felicia Marie Knaul, Miriam Mutebi, and Naomi Lee

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Authorship Equity and Gender Representation in Global Oncology Publications, Paula Hornstein, Hubert Tuyishime, Miriam Mutebi, Nwamaka Lasebikan, Fidel Rubagumya, and Temidayo Fadelu

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A case report of minimally invasive percutaneous ultrasound guided tuberculous iliopsoas abscess drainage in an immunocompromised patient, Allyzain Ismail, Neelam Ismail, Athar Ali, Shabbir Adamjee, Ahmed Jusabani, and Zainab Fidaali

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Evaluation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment and thrombo-prophylaxis practices in hospitalized medical and surgical patients at Aga Khan Hospital Dar es Salaam: single-centre retrospective study, Allyzain Ismail, Nikhil Jadawji, Philip Adebayo, Ahmed Jusabani, Kamran Hamid, Ali Akbar Zehri, Willy Kiviri, and Authar Ali

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Cancer research across Africa: a comparative bibliometric analysis, Miriam Mutebi, Grant Lewison, Ajay Aggarwal, Olusegun Isaac Alatise, Christopher Booth, Miska Cira, Surbhi Grover, Ophira Ginsburg, Julie Gralow, and Serine Gueye

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Cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: a Lancet Oncology Commission, Wilfred Ngwa, Beatrice W. Addai, Isaac Adewole, Victoria Ainsworth, James Alaro, Olusegun I. Alatise, Zipporah Ali, Benjamin O. Anderson, Miriam Mutebi, and Shahin Sayed

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Diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography in adults with suspected acute appendicitis at the emergency department in a private tertiary hospital in Tanzania, Masawa K. Nyamuryekung’e, Miten WR. Patel, Ahmed Jusabani, Ali Akbar Zehri, and Authar Ali

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The next frontier in neurocritical care in resource-constrained settings, Madiha Raees, Beverly Jebet Cheserem, Benjamin Mutiso, Tsegazeab Laeke, and Brian Jason Brotherton

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The Kenya UK Breast Cancer Awareness Week: curriculum codesign and codelivery with direct and lived experience of breast cancer diagnosis and management, Bahaty Riogi, Carlo Ross, Miriam Mutebi, and Rajiv V. Dave

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Choosing Wisely Africa: Insights from the front lines of clinical care, Fidel Rubagumya, Kevin Makori, Hirondina Borges, Sitna Mwanzi, Safiya Karim, Citonje Msadabwe, Nazima Dharsee, Miriam Mutebi, Wilma M. Hopman, and Verna Vanderpuye

Submissions from 2021

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Prevalence of Os Acromiale in an Indigenous East African Population: A Computerized Tomography Scan-based Study, Mordicai Atinga, Njalalle Baraza, Sarah Wambui, Wachira Joseph Thiong’o, and Angela Atinga

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Extra-articular arthroscopic release of lateral epicondylitis: a prospective study, Njalalle Baraza, Mark P. Robinson, Nanda Kumar Sakaleshpura Chandrashekar, Jessica A. Perry, and William D. Regan

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Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair without antibiotic prophylaxis does not increase the infection rate, Njalalle Baraza, Maciej J. K. Simon, and Jordan M. Leith

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The impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on breast cancer early detection and screening, Breast Screening Working Group (WG2) of the Covid-19 and Cancer Global Modelling Consortium, Jonine D. Figueroa, Ewan Gray, Nora Pashayan, Silvia Deandrea, Andre Karch, Diama Bhadra Vale, Kenneth Elder, Pietro Procopio, and Miriam Mutebi

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A Continental Survey on the Impact of COVID-19 on Neurosurgical Training in Africa, Beverly Cheserem, Ignatius N. Esene N. Esene, Muhammad Raji Mahmud, Kazadi Kalangu, Samuila Sanoussi, Aaron Musara, Nasser M.F. El-Ghandour, and Mahmood Qureshi

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A Continental Survey on the Impact of COVID-19 on Neurosurgical Training in Africa, Beverly Cheserem, Ignatius N. Esene, Muhammad Raji Mahmud, Kazadi Kalangu, Samuila Sanoussi, Aaron Musara, Nasser M. F. El-Ghandour, Graham Fieggen, and Mahmood Qureshi

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State of Neurosurgical Education in Africa: A Narrative Review, Olaoluwa Ezekiel Dada, Claire Karekezi, Celestin Bilong Mbangtang, Edwin Samwel Chellunga, Thioub Mbaye, Landry Konan, Nourou Dine Adeniran Bankole, Katenga Dieu Merci Kabulo, Yao Christian Hugues Dokponou, and Beverly Cheserem

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Effectiveness of Pain Control of Local Anaesthetic Wound Infusion Following Elective Midline Laparotomy: A Randomized Trial, David Gathege, Abdallah Abdulkarim, David Odaba, and Stanley Mugambi

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Hierarchy of scientific evidence and thematic analysis of African neurosurgery research–a scoping review, Ulrick Sidney Kanmounye, Stephane Nguembu, Yvan Zolo, Dawin Sichimba, Myron Rolle, Adam Ammar, Nourou Dine Adeniran Bankole, Kantenga DN Kabulo, Beverly Cheserem, Kee B. Park, Claire Karekezi, and Ignatius Esene

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African neurosurgery research: a scientometric analysis of the top 115 most cited articles, Ulrick Sidney Kanmounye, Stephane Nguembu, Yvan Zolo, Dawin Sichimba, Myron L. Rolle, Adam Sammar, Nourou Dine Adeniran Bankole, Kantenga DN Kabulo, Beverly Cheserem, Kee B. Park, Claire Karekezi, and Ignatius Esene

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Needs of Young African Neurosurgeons and Residents: A Cross-Sectional Study, Ulrick S. Kanmounye, Faith C. Robertson, Nqobile S. Thango, Alvin Nah Doe, Nourou Dine Adeniran Bankole, Pape Aicha Ginette, Solomon Ondoma, James A. Balogun, Beverly Cheserem, and Mahmood Qureshi

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History of African women in neurosurgery, Claire Karekezi, Nqobile Thango, Salamat Ahuoiza Aliu-Ibrahim, Hajar Bechri, Espérance Maman You Broalet, Mouna Bougrine, Beverly Cheserem, Maguette Mbaye, Zarina Ali Shabhay, Nabila Tighilt, Souad Bakhti, and Najia El Abbadi

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Out-of-programme experience in UK neurosurgery trainees: optimising the transition back into clinical practice, J. Lam, G. Evans, R. M. deSouza, Beverly Cheserem, and C. M. Tolias

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The Impact of COVID-19 on Neurosurgical Services in Africa, Muhammad Raji Mahmud, Beverly Cheserem, Ignatius N. Esene, Kazadi Kalangu, Samuila Sanoussi, Aaron Musara, Nasser M.F. El-Ghandour, Graham Fieggen, and Mahmood Qureshi

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Perceptions of surgeons on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis use at an urban tertiary hospital in Tanzania, Elizabeth Mmari, Eunice Pallangyo, Authar Ali, Dereck A. Kaale, Isaac Mawalla, and Muzdalfat Abeid

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Hemobilia secondary to choledochal cyst, Stanley Mugambi, S. R. Hussain, Ahmed Laving, Patricia Okiro, and Bernadette Muthee

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Global cancer control: choosing the road less travelled, Miriam Mutebi

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Residency training on the frontlines of the COVID-19 pandemic - a qualitative study from Tanzania, Mariam Noorani, Hussein Manji, Elizabeth Mmari, Samina Somji, Nahida Z. Walli, Sherin Kassamali, Shabbir Adamjee, Nancy Matillya, Hanifa Mbithe, Aliasger Nagri, and Neelam Ismail

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Validation of the Swahili version of the International Prostate Symptom Score at a private, nonprofit general hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Miten Patel, l Masawa Klint Klint, Philip Adebayo, Authar Ali, Jasmit Shah, and Ali Akbar Zehri

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Validation of the Swahili version of the International Prostate Symptom Score at a private, nonprofit general hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Miten Patel, Masawa Klint, Philip Adebayo, Authar Ali, Jasmit Shah, and Ali Akbar Zehri

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Characteristics of Global Neurosurgery Sessions: A Retrospective Analysis of Major International Neurosurgical Conferences, Vaishnavi Sharma, Andre Boyke, Nathan A. Shlobin, Chibueze Nwagwu, Arsene Nyalundja, Myron Rolle, Beverly Cheserem, and Kee Park

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Postoperative subcutaneous emphysema following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A rare complication, Hussam Uddin Soomro, Isaac Mawalla, Shabbir Adamjee, Nadeem Kassam, and Authar Ali

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Cervical Spine Trauma in East Africa: Presentation, Treatment, and Mortality, Scott L. Zuckerman, Arsalan Haghdel, Noah L. Lessing, Joseph Carnevale, Beverly Cheserem, Albert Lazaro, Andreas Leidinger, Nicephorus Rutabasibwa, Hamisi K. Shabani, and Halinder Mangat

Submissions from 2020

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The changing trend of teleconsultations during COVID-19 era at a tertiary facility in Tanzania, Philip Adebayo, Ahmed Jusabani, Murtaza Mukhtar, and Ali Akbar Zehri

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COVID-19 and stroke in sub-Saharan Africa: case series from Dar es Salaam, Philip Adebayo, Nadeem Kassam, Omar Aziz, Ahmed Jusabani, Samina Somji, and Mugisha Clement

The quality of life of patients with early breast cancer and their partners one year after breast conserving surgery versus modified radical mastectomy: a single centre five year review, Senoga Andrew

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3D - Printed Patient Specific Instrumentation in Corrective Osteotomy of the Femur and Pelvis: A Review of the Literature, Njalalle Baraza, Chris Chapman, Sima Zakani, and Kishore Mulpuri

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The Breast Health Global Initiative 2018 Global Summit on Improving Breast Healthcare Through Resource‐Stratified Phased Implementation: Methods and overview, Catherine Duggan, Allison Dvaladze, Anne F. Rositch, Ophira Ginsburg, Cheng-Har Yip, Susan Horton, Rolando Camacho Rodriguez, Alexandru Eniu, Miriam Mutebi, and Jean-Marc Bourque

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Retroperitoneal isolated enteric duplication cyst, Fariha Fazal and Patricia Okiro

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Postoperative myocardial injury in a patient with left ureteric stone and asymptomatic COVID-19 disease, Nadeem Kassam, Omar Aziz, Ally Zain Ismail, Rodgers Swai, Samina Somji, Robert Mvungi, Mustaafa Bapumia, Ali Akbar Zehri, and Salim Surani

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Case Report: Sudden Splenic Rupture in a Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Patient, Nadeem Kassam, Steven Michael, Kamran Hamid, Authar Ali, and Salim Surani

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Pressure ulcers after traumatic spinal injury in East Africa: risk factors, illustrative case, and low-cost protocol for prevention and treatment, Noah L. Lessing, Silvery Mwesige, Albert Lazaro, Beverly Cheserem, Scott L. Zuckerman, Andreas Leidinger, Nicephorus Rutabasibwa, Hamisi K. Shabani, Halinder Mangat, and Roger Härtl

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A case report on ascariasis and intestinal obstruction, Angela Migowa, Daniel Kiura, W. Kombe, and Stanley Mugambi

Breast cancer recurrence rate in patients treated for early breast cancer, Cecilia Munguti

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Breast cancer treatment: A phased approach to implementation, Miriam Mutebi, Benjamin O. Anderson, Catherine Duggan, Clement Adebamowo, Gaurav Agarwal, Zipporah Ali, Peter Bird, Jean-Marc Bourque, Rebecca DeBoer, and Luiz Henrique Gebrim

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Innovative Use of mHealth and Clinical Technology for Oncology Clinical Trials in Africa, Miriam Mutebi, Rohini Bhatia, Omolola Salako, Fidel Rubagumya, Surbhi Grover, and Nazik Hammad

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Engaging Patients for Clinical Trials in Africa: Patient-Centered Approaches, Miriam Mutebi, Dicey Scroggins, Virgil Simons, Naomi Ohene Oti, and Nazik Hammad

Local anaesthetic wound infusion versus thoracic epidural analgesia for post-operative pain control following elective laparotomy: a randomised controlled trial, Daniel Gathege Mwangi

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Phase I Study of Ramucirumab Plus Merestinib in Previously Treated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Safety, Preliminary Efficacy, and Pharmacokinetic Findings, Mansoor Saleh, Philippe A. Cassier, Lauriane Eberst, Gurudatta Naik, Van K. Morris, Shubham Pant, Catherine Terret, Ling Gao, Amanda Long, and Huzhang Mao

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Clinical Investigator Training Program (CITP) – A practical and pragmatic approach to conveying clinical investigator competencies and training to busy clinicians., Mansoor Saleh, Gurudatta Naik, Penelope Jester, Cynthia Joiner, Elizabeth Westfall, David W. Kimberlin, James Willig, David Redden, Juliette Southworth, and Mark T. Dransfield

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TBCRC 002: A phase II, randomized, open-label trial of preoperative letrozole with or without bevacizumab in postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed stage 2/3 hormone receptor-positive and HER2-negative breast cancer., Christos Vaklavas, Brian S. Roberts, Katherine E Varley E. Varley, Nancy U Lin Lin, Minetta C. Liu, Hope S. Rugo, Shannon Puhalla, Rita Nanda, Anna Maria Storniolo, and Mansoor Saleh

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Inadvertent Stone Migration During Pneumatic Lithotripsy: Still a Conundrum in the 21st Century, Ali Akbar Zehri, Miten Patel, Philip Adebayo, and Authar Ali

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Overview of Antiretropulsion Devices for Prevention of Inadvertent Stone Migration during Pneumatic Lithotripsy for Ureteric Stone, Ali Akbar Zehri, Miten Patel, Philip Adebayo, and Authar Ali

Submissions from 2019

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Encephaloduroateriosynangiosis (EDAS) in the management of Moyamoya syndrome in children with sickle cell disease, Alexander Alamri, Pennylouise Hever, Beverly Jebet Cheserem, Catia Gradil, Sanj Bassi, and Christos M. Tolias

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Cyto-histologic discordancy in patients undergoing thyroidectomy at Aga Khan University Hospital, Moses Barasa and Abdulkarim Abdallah

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Global incidence of brain and spinal tumors by geographic region and income level based on cancer registry data, Joseph S. Bell, Robert M. Koffie, Abbas Rattani, Michael C. Dewan, Ronnie E. Baticulon, Mahmood Qureshi, Eka J. Wahjoepramono, Gail Rosseau, Kee Park, and Brian V. Nahed

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Difficulties in diagnosis of Riedel's thyroiditis on aspiration cytology: A case report and brief review of the literature, Neeta Kumar, Ruchika Gupta, Shahin Sayed, Zahir Moloo, Sudhir Vinayak, and Mushtaq Ahmed

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Experience in the Early Surgical Management of Myelomeningocele in Zanzibar, Andreas Leidinger, Jose Piquer, Eliana E. Kim, Hadia Nahonda, Mahmood Qureshi, and Paul H. Young

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Upper Arm Disability after Axillary Surgery for Early Breast Cancer, Karen Mbaabu and Ronald Wasike

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Africa rising: gendered journeys of women patients and providers, Miriam Mutebi

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Assessing Executive Function in Adolescence: A Scoping Review of Existing Measures and Their Psychometric Robustness, Moses K. Nyongesa, Derrick Ssewanyana, Agnes M. Mutua, Esther Chongwo, Gaia Scerif, Charles R. J. C. Newton, and Amina Abubakar

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Establishing Cohorts to Generate the Evidence Base to Reduce the Burden of Breast Cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa: Results From a Feasibility Study in Kenya, Sujha Subramanian, Robai Gakunga, Madeleine D. Jones, Asaph Kinyanjui, Emily' Ochieng, Nancy Gikaara, Florence Maluni, David Wata, Anne Korir, Miriam Mutebi, and Zipporah Ali

Submissions from 2018

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Are Prophylactic Intravenous Antibiotics Required in Routine Shoulder Arthroscopic Surgery? A Systematic Review of the Literature, Njalalle Baraza and Jordan Leith

Two to nine year Review of Breast Conservation Therapy (BCT) for Breast Carcinoma: Clinico-Pathological features and Survival in a Single Centre in East Africa, George Orerah

The causes and effects of attrition from Post-graduate residency programs at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi., Dennis Wamalwa

Submissions from 2017

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A Case Series on Nutrition in Hip Fracture Patients: a Mismatch between Needs and Dietary Intake, Njalalle Baraza, Eamon Ramhamadany, and Thomas Laios

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Distal Humeral Fractures-Current Concepts, James C. Beazley, Njalalle Baraza, Robert Jordan, and Chetan S. Modi

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Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Pathology and 2-Year Postsurgical Recurrence of Breast Cancer in Kenyan Women, Nathan R. Brand, Ronald Wasike, Khalid Makhdomi, Rajendra Chauhan, Zahir Moloo, Samuel Gakinya, Alfred I. Neugut, Jo Anne Zujewski, and Shahin Sayed

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Interventions to close the divide for women with breast and cervical cancer between low-income and middle-income countries and high-income countries, Lynette Denny, Silvia de Sanjose, Miriam Mutebi, Benjamin O. Anderson, Jane Kim, Jose Jeronimo, Rolando Herrero, Karen Yeates, Ophira Ginsburg, and Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan

Patients’ Level of Knowledge and Perception of the Involvement of Post-Graduate Trainees in their Surgical Care at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi., Jane Mugure Githae

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The impact of the introduction of PECARN head CT rules on the utilisation of head CT scans in a private tertiary hospital in Sub-Saharan Africa, Isaac O. Kobe, Mahmood Qureshi, Saidi Hassan, and David Olunya

Immunohistochemical p21 expression in Breast Cancer: Association with patient and tumour characteristics, Benjamin N. Njihia

Validation of the Iief - 5 Questionnaire in a Clinic Population at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Denis Otim

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Being a Surgeon: The Ten Commandments, Asad Raja

Theses/Dissertations from 2016

The Impact of the introduction of the Pecarn Head CT Rules on the utilisation of Head Ct Scans for Children with Mild Head Injury at The Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi., Isaac Oluoch Kobe

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Comparison of the prevalence and characteristics of inpatient adverse events using medical records review and incident reporting, William Macharia, Charles Muteshi, Sikolia Wanyonyi, Abraham Mukaindo, Ahmed Ismail, Herman Ekea, Abdallah Abdulkarim, John Tole, and Anthony Ngugi

Residents’ Perception on the Need for Clinical Leadership Training at The Aga Khan University, Nairobi, Lance Mayabi

Effect of Additional Lumbosacral Corset on the Outcome of Patients with Non-Specific Acute Low Back Pain at The Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Stanley Aruyaru Mwenda

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Breast Camps for Awareness and Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in Countries With Limited Resources: A Multidisciplinary Model From Kenya, Shahin Sayed, Zahir Moloo, Anthony Ngugi, Amyn Allidina, Rose Ndumia, Anderson Mutuiri, Ronald Wasike, Charles Wahome, Mohamed Abdihakin, Riaz Kasmani, Carol D. Spears, Raymond Oigara, Elizabeth B. Mwachiro, Satya V.P. Busarla, Kibet Kibor, Abdulaziz Ahmed, Jonathan Wawire, Omar Sherman, Mansoor Saleh, Jo Anne Zujewski, and Sanford M. Dawsey

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A Community-Oriented Approach to Breast Cancer in a Low-Resource Setting: Improving Awareness, Early Detection and Treatment of Breast Cancer in Tajikistan, Zohray Talib, Irina Shukurbekova, Guldarbogh Sadonshoeva, Alibek Alibekov, Nekruz Jamshedov, Zahir Moloo, Almas Welji, Farin Amersi, Aliya Amin Muhammad, Aliya Jiwani, Sheliza Rais, Akoyat Nazrishoeva, Surayo Ilnazarova, Shifo Nuridinova, Hafiza Ukani, Shireen Alwani, and Mansoor Saleh

Theses/Dissertations from 2015

Development of a guide by postgraduate residents on receiving feedback from faculty in the operating theatre at Aga Khan University Hospital, David Karuri Maina

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Neurosurgery Education and Development program to treat hydrocephalus and to develop neurosurgery in Africa using mobile neuroendoscopic training, José Piquer, Mahmood Qureshi, Paul H. Young, and Robert J. Dempsey

Effect of a navigation program on patient return after an abnormal clinical breast cancer screening examination finding at Aga khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Esther Kemunto Riogi

The effectiveness of dexamethasone as an adjunct to surgery on satisfactory resolution of chronic subdural haematomas: a randomised control trial, Carnjini Yogeswaran Thambaiya

Theses/Dissertations from 2014

The incidence of early upper extremity disability after axillary surgery in patients with early breast cancer, Karen Mbaabu

Surgical site infection rates in breast cancer surgery at a University hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, Andrew Nyangau Nyaoncha

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Is breast cancer from Sub Saharan Africa truly receptor poor? Prevalence of ER/PR/HER2 in breast cancer from Kenya, Shahin Sayed, Zahir Moloo, Ronald Wasike, Peter Bird, Raymond Oigara, Dhirendra Govender, Joshua Kibera, Henri Carrara, and Mansoor Saleh

A double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing effectiveness of 0.2% topical nifedipine versus 0.2% topical glyceryl trinitrate in the treatment of chronic anal fissure, Mark Michael Wekundah Siboe

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Surgical margin status after breast conservation surgery at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Ronald Wasike and B. Riogi

Theses/Dissertations from 2013

The impact of introduction of the Canadian CT – head rule on the use of CT-scan on minor head injury patients at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Ramadhani Omari Abdalla

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Population-specific evolution of HIV Gag epitopes in genetically diverged patients, Syed H. Abidi, Aniqa Shahid, Laila S. Lakhani, Muhammad R. Khanani, Peter Ojwang, Nancy Okinda, Reena Shah, Farhat Abbas, Sarah Rowland-Jones, and Syed Ali

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The second African Federation of neurological surgeons course in the East, Central, and Southern Africa region held in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, January 2011, J. F. Kahamba, A. B. Assey, R. J. Dempsey, M. M. Qureshi, and R. Härtl

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Mobile endoscopy: a treatment and training model for childhood hydrocephalus, Qureshi M. M, Piquer J., and Young P. H.

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The effectiveness of an abbreviated training program for health workers in breast cancer awareness: innovative strategies for resource constrained environments, Miriam Mutebi, Ronald Wasike, Ahmed Mushtaq, Aideed Kahie, and Stephen Ntoburi

Validation of the ottawa ankle rules at a tertiary teaching hospital: a cross-sectional study, Mark Karanja Tharao

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Primary leiomyoma — A rare tumour of ureter, Ali Akbar Zehri, Authar Ali, Farah Iqbal, and Muthoni Jessca

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Healthcare workers in Sub-Saharan Africa and the risk of acquiring immunodeficiency virus: Let’s build a better environment, Ali Akbar Zehri, Atta Aleem Bhatti, and Mubashiri Mahmood Qureshi