Document Type

Conference Paper

Conference Name

The 7th International Conference on Computer Engineering and Network

Conference Location

Shanghai, China

Publication (Name of Journal)

Proceedings of science


Institute for Educational Development, East Africa


doi:10.22323/ 1.299.0038


Technological University Dublin




The wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have a wide range of applications in many ereas, including many kinds of uses such as environmental monitoring and chemical detection. Due to the restriction of energy supply, the improvement of routing performance is the major motivation in WSNs. We present a Clustering Opportunistic Ant-based Routing protocol (COAR), which comprises the following main contributions to achieve high energy efficient and well load-balance: (i) in the clustering algorithm, we caculate the theoretical value of energy dissipation, which will make the number of clusters fluctuate around the expected value, (ii) define novel heuristic function and pheromone update manner, develop an improved ant-based routing algorithm, in this way, the optimal path with lower energy level and shorter link length is established, and (iii) propose the energy-based opportunistic broadcasting mechanism to reduce the routing control overhead. We implement COAR protocol in NS2 simulator and our extensive evaluation shows that COAR is superior to some seminal routing algorithms under a wide range of scenarios.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.