Empowered women in Pakistan: English a friend?

Document Type

Book Chapter




Nasreen Hussain, Azra Ahmed, Mohammad Zafar.

Publication (Name of Journal)

English and empowerment in the developing world


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Cambridge Scholars Publishing


Newcastle upon Tyne


The area of empowerment of women in general has received considerable attention in Gender and Development (GAD) literature. Kabeer (1999) points out that the research in this area has led to the development of systems, political reform, mobilisation of human capital, and developmental of nations. while empowerment has been considered from a multidimensional perspective on a global scale, the searchlight and work on empowerment in the developing nations' context, particularly in Pakistan, has been on political, economic, social reproductive, human, and civil rights. This paper discusses the finding of the first phase of a study that focuses on exploring another possible variable in the empowerment equation: the possible role proficiency in English may play in empowering and helping women to be successful in Pakistan. Accordingly, the paper i) provides the background of the study and the relevant literature, ii) briefly highlights the methodology used for the study, iii) shares the study findings (for phase only), and iv) closes with making recommendations.