Exploring teachers’ perceptions and practices of supporting early writing development in early childhood classrooms in Gojal Hunza.

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Early writing development has been found as an indicator for later academic success. Literature suggests that providing a rich learning environment and choices is helpful in developing early writing skills. Pakistan’s National Curriculum for Early Childhood Care and Education (2020) also recognize the importance of early writing development. Teachers play a major role in developing the early writing skills of children. Moreover, teachers’ perceptions are important in taking decision for choosing instructional strategies in their classrooms. Exploratory method was employed to explore the perceptions and practices of private schools’ teachers in supporting and assessing early writing development in the early childhood classroom. Four teachers from private schools were selected purposefully to participate in the study. Data were gathered by using semi-structured interview and document analysis. The study findings revealed that teachers have their own viewpoint of early writing development. Moreover, these teachers’ own understanding of early writing development shapes their teaching strategies. The teachers are using both traditional and constructive teaching approaches to teach early writing skills. However, the teachers give more emphasis on the formation of letters and words. While critical thinking and problem-solving skills are found major area of concern in the process of early writing development. The study finds that teachers encounter many challenges while developing early writing skills like weak motor skills, students’ readiness to write and lack of parental support. However, teachers are playing their role to overcome these challenges through different activities. This study also revealed that teachers perceive assessment as an important component to support early writing skills. In addition, teachers are using various assessment tools like observation, portfolios and checklists to assess early writing skills. However, the study finds that the assessment tools are not specifically for assessing early writing skills. Teachers have lack of understanding about the assessment tools that they are using. The study findings revealed that teachers having certificate courses in early childhood education are found more confident in expressing their thoughts and ideas. Moreover, early childhood teachers need continuous professional development sessions to cope with the current demands of society and to deal with 21st-century learners.

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