Exploring the facilitating and hindering factors in enacting school management committee’s school improvement roles in Gilgit-Baltistan.

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (MEd)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This study looked at the factors that facilitated or hindered the School Management Committees (SMCs) roles in improving teaching and learning conditions in one government and one private school in the marginalized context of Chipurson, Hunza, Gilgit-Baltistan. To this end, the study explored perspectives of the school headteachers, teachers, and parents on SMC’s roles in school improvement. The qualitative comparative case study approach was employed as a research methodology for this study. Data were gathered through in-depth face-to-face interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) of 18 participants including headteachers, teachers, and SMCs members. Also, as part of document analysis, the schools and SMCs records were analyzed to get a clearer picture of their work. The study findings revealed that the role of school heads, the role of SMC chairmen, and awareness among the school community, as the key common motivating factors in both schools. In both the government and private school systems it was clear that in cases where the school headteachers and the school committee leadership played a proactive and facilitating role in school improvement, it contributed to increasing the motivation levels of the school committee members. Conversely, when the school leadership and the SMC chairmen showed laxity, indifferent attitude, and low performance in achieving their goals, it made the committee members demotivated. In addition, students’ academic performance also emerged as a motivating factor for the Rose School SMC. Whereas, the religious norms and values, the role of local leadership, and practice at Jamat Khana were the key motivating factors for Novel School’s Village Education Committee (VEC), which increased their interest and willingness to serve on the committee. Conversely, the lack of parents’ interest in their children’s studies, students’ poor performance in annual exams, students’ weak progress in their higher studies, the strained relationships amongst the SMC members and other stakeholders, and unprofessional attitudes of school teachers, emerged as the demotivating factors for both school SMCs in enacting their school improvement roles. The cross-case analysis of the findings showed that the Rose School SMC was relatively more actively engaged in school improvement processes than the Novel School village education committee (VEC). The Rose School SMC’s opportunities to avail capacity building workshops, a more thoughtful selection of the committee members, and increasing community trust contributed to their improved performance.

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