A study of the conditions created by schools in and outside the classroom for promoting civic sensibility among secondary school students in district Chitral, Pakistan
Date of Award
Master of Philosophy in Education
Institute for Educational Development, Karachi
One of the significant goals of education is the training of students to fulfil their roles as responsible citizens. To achieve this aim (inculcating civic sense in students), various institutions like school, family and society play their parts. This research study explicitly explores how schools at Chitral in KP, Pakistan, create conditions inside and outside the classroom to promote civic sense among the students at the secondary level. I employed a qualitative research approach to achieve the research objectives. Data were collected from four schools through interviews, observations, FGD, and content analysis of the textbooks of Pakistan studies at the secondary level. Data was collected through purposive sampling from eight social studies teachers, four headteachers, and forty students from two Moon's schools (pseudonym) and two Star's schools (pseudonym) in the district of Chitral KP, Pakistan. Findings of the study revealed a mismatch between the textbooks of Pakistan studies and the standards of civic education identified by civics education curriculum 2009. The study also explored that the textbooks of Pakistan studies lacked contents about civic sensibility.
Moreover, the study explored that school initiatives and teachers' practices in the Moon's school system were favorable. In contrast, school initiatives and teachers' practices in the Star's school system were not favorable to promoting civic sense among the students. The best initiatives taken by the Moon's school system for promoting civic sensibility among the students were: conducting in-service training for teachers through the PRISM program, practicing appraisal system, ensuring the availability of internet, computer lab, and providing a clean and conducive environment in the schools. The best classroom practices of teachers in the Moon school system were ensuring students' civic activities through debate, project work, encouraging students for voluntary work in the community, practicing election, and providing a democratic attitude in the classroom. In contrast, the Star's school system teachers' initiatives and practices were not favorable to promote civic sense among the students. The teachers' hurdle in promoting civic sense among the students was overcrowded classrooms, unavailability of resources in schools, and a less attractive school environment. Simultaneously, the unavailability of trained teachers and no appraisal system was the hurdle to Star's schools' headteachers. As a result, the condition of civic knowledge, skills, dispositions, and civic actions among the students in Star's schools was not encouraging. While the civic knowledge, skills, dispositions, and actions of students in the Moon's schools were encouraging compared to the Star's school’s system. The study recommends reviewing the textbooks of Pakistan studies. It is also recommended the theme of civics should stress social values and civic mindedness. The contents related to women's rights, children's rights, and minorities' rights should also be included in the textbooks of Pakistan studies. Moreover, it is also recommended that to evaluate the students' social skills, the examination board should introduce a formative assessment strategy along with the summative assessment at the secondary level. To promote civic sense among the students, Star's schools may introduce an appraisal system in schools, ensure the availability of teaching resources, and maintain cleanliness in the school environment. The Star's schools may encourage teachers to make their teaching practices favorable for promoting civic sense among the students by creating a democratic classroom environment involving students in classroom discussions, debates, and project work related to civic sensibility.
Afzal, S. (2020). A study of the conditions created by schools in and outside the classroom for promoting civic sensibility among secondary school students in district Chitral, Pakistan (Unpublished master's dissertation). Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.