Teachers’ contextual experiences about the application of ICT resources in teaching and learning in a private secondary school in Karachi

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Philosophy in Education


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


In the eras of neoliberalism and globalization, the objective of education is to help students become independent learners. As the paradigm of teaching and learning has shifted in the 21st century, many private sector schools in Karachi, Pakistan are making efforts to integrate ICT in classrooms. These schools are working to improve infrastructure, availability of internet, computers, laptops and teachers training required for the ICT friendly classrooms. This research explored “teachers’ contextual experiences about the application of ICT resources in teaching and learning in a private secondary school in Karachi”. The research employed qualitative case study with a phenomenological lens in order to explore ICT resources available in the school, training teachers have in using ICT for education, teachers’ success stories about the integration of ICT in the classroom, and challenges faced by the teachers while integrating ICT in their teaching. The study also explored how the teachers coped with those challenges. Data were collected from the lived experienced and perspectives of eight teachers and (one school principal) (three males and six females) at a private higher secondary school in Karachi, Pakistan. The findings showed that teachers had diverse experiences of integrating ICT in teaching and learning. There were many success stories. Teachers learnt through their own experiences. Through ICT integration not only teachers’ technical skills developed but their language skills, content, and pedagogical skills also improved. Teachers started to collaborate with other teachers. Teachers’ burden was reduced because ICT tools enhanced students learning and provided assistance to the teachers. Teachers also experienced some challenges. Key among these were the fixed mindset of teachers, lack of contextually relevant tools, expensive technical tools and gadgets and ethical usage of technology. Teachers’ concerns about the ethical usage of technology were removed through critical and careful assessment of the content before selection. Ethical consideration was also a big issue because it was difficult to find out resources according to their beliefs and faith. The research has demonstrated that continuous effort, motivation and encouragement of the school leader is important in helping teachers develop proficiency in ICT integration. This study recommends a large scale, mixed method, comparative, and multi stakeholders’ study across Pakistan in order to develop a more comprehensive and holistic understanding of the experiences of the teachers in ICT integrated classrooms.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library