The perceptions and practices of social studies teachers about enquiry-based teaching in Karachi, Pakistan

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Education (M. Ed.)


Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This study was conducted to examine the perceptions and practices about enquiry based teaching held by Social Studies teachers in private English Medium schools in Karachi (Pakistan). 257 teachers participated in the survey. They were asked to share their perceptions and practices about enquiry-based teaching. The results of the study showed that the Social Studies teachers in private English medium schools have a poor understanding about the nature of enquiry-based teaching. They also lack the appropriate pedagogical skills and competencies which are probably due to the low quality of training that they received. However, it is important to note that Pakistani teachers do make efforts to use enquiry in their Social Studies classrooms. While implementing an enquiry approach, the teachers recognize that enquiry has a positive impact on students' learning in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The teachers identify some challenges of implementing enquiry based teaching as well. As a solution, professional development of the teachers has been proposed as a solution. In addition, calls for enquiry materials and efficient support from all school stakeholders have been raised.

This document is available in the relevant AKU library