Harder-to-treat patients: Recognizing them and adapting treatment strategies

Document Type





Despite significant progress in pharmacologic treatment aimed at lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to reduce cardiovascular disease risk, a number of patient groups that often prove difficult to treat remain. Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia may go undiagnosed and untreated or, despite treatment, have persistently elevated lipid levels that confer a high cardiovascular disease risk. Although the true prevalence is unknown, statin intolerance is a common clinical presentation that is difficult to assess and frequently leads to suboptimal lipid treatment. Additionally, some patients may not achieve the expected response to guideline-based therapy. For all 3 groups, a standardized approach offers the best chance for effective diagnosis and optimal treatment.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

Publication (Name of Journal)

The American Journal of Cardiology