Clinical and economic burden of percutaneous coronary intervention in hospitalized young adults in the United States, 2004-2018

Document Type



Office of the Provost; Cardiology


The clinical and economic burden of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in young adults (18-45 years) is understudied. We used the National Inpatient Sample database between 2004 and 2018 to study trends in PCI volume, in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and health care expenditure among adults aged 18-45 years who underwent PCI. The data were weighted to explore national estimates of the entire US hospitalized population. We identified 558,611 PCI cases, equivalent to 31.4 per 1,000,000 person-years; 25.4% were women, and 69.5% were White adults. Overall, annual PCI volume significantly decreased from 41.6 per 100,000 in 2004 to 21.9 per 100,000 in 2018, mainly due to 83% volume reduction in non-myocardial infarction (MI) cases. The prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidities, smoking, and drug abuse increased. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 0.87%; women had higher mortality than men (1.12% vs 0.78%; P = 0.01). The crude and risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality significantly increased between 2004 and 2018. Women, STEMI, NSTEMI, drug abuse, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and renal failure were associated with higher odds of in-hospital mortality. Inflation-adjusted cost significantly increased over time ($21,567 to $24,173). We noted reduction in PCI volumes but increasing mortality and clinical comorbidities among young patients undergoing PCI. Demographic disparities existed with women having higher in-hospital mortality than men.


Pagination are not provided by the author/publisher. This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Current problems in cardiology