Cardiovascular disease management with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cardiology primer

Document Type



Office of the Provost; Cardiology


Patients with type 2 diabetes face an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. This review centers on sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, a class of drugs that, according to a growing body of evidence, may have major potential for managing cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. This review presents findings from multiple clinical trials suggesting that SGLT2 inhibitors can not only serve as preventive therapeutic agents but also play a role in the active management of heart failure. The discussion includes the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, emphasizing that they enhance urinary glucose excretion, which could lead to improved glycemic control and contribute to metabolic shifts beneficial to cardiac function. Alongside these cardiometabolic effects, safety concerns and practical considerations for prescribing these agents are addressed, taking into account potential adverse effects such as genitourinary infections and diabetic ketoacidosis as well as the financial implications for patients. Despite these drawbacks, therapeutic indications for SGLT2 inhibitors continue to expand, including for kidney protection, although further research is necessary to fully understand the mechanisms driving the cardioprotective and kidney-protective effects of SGLT2 inhibitors. By synthesizing current knowledge, this review intends to inform and guide clinical decision-making, thereby enhancing cardiovascular disease outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Pagination are not provided by the author/publisher.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Texas Heart Institute journal