Low levels of ideal cardiovascular health in a semi-urban population of Western Nepal: A population-based, cross-sectional study

Document Type



Office of the Provost; Cardiology


Background: The aim of this study was to assess the status of cardiovascular health among a semi-urban population of Nepal, and determine factors associated with ideal cardiovascular health.
Methods: A population-based, cross-sectional study using a systematic random sample was conducted among 2310 adults aged ≥ 25 years in a semi-urban area of the Pokhara Metropolitan City previously named Lekthnath in Nepal. The ideal, intermediate and poor cardiovascular health were defined as the presence of 6-7, 4-5 or 1-3 health metrics, among a list of 7 health behaviours and healthfactors, namely smoking, body mass index, physical activity, fruits and vegetables intakes, harmful alcohol consumption, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose. We used univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models adjusting for sex, age groups, ethnicity, educational level and socioeconomic status, and calculated the prevalence ratios with 95% CIs.
Results: Only 14.3 % of the participants had ideal cardiovascular health, whereas 67.0% and 18.7% of the participants had intermediate and poor cardiovascular health, respectively. Age groups 45-54 years (prevalence ratio 0.88, 95% CI: 0.83 to 0.94, p<0.001) and 55-64 years (prevalence ratio 0.84, 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.90, p<0.001) were significantly associated with low prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health compared with the age group 35-44 years. Ethnic groups, including Janajati (prevalence ratio 0.89, 95% CI: 0.85 to 0.93, p<0.001) and Dalit (prevalence ratio 0.9, 95% CI: 0.84 to 0.95, p=0.001), were significantly associated with low prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health.
Conclusions: Prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health is low in the semi-urban population in Nepal. Concerted efforts are needed to develop a population-based intervention to improve cardiovascular health in Nepal.


Pagination is not provided by the author/publisher. This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Heart Asia