Long-Term Mortality in Patients With Severe Hypercholesterolemia Phenotype From a Racial and Ethnically Diverse US Cohort

Document Type



Cardiology; Office of the Provost


Background: Tools for mortality prediction in patients with the severe hypercholesterolemia phenotype (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥190 mg/dL) are limited and restricted to specific racial and ethnic cohorts. We sought to evaluate the predictors of long-term mortality in a large racially and ethnically diverse US patient cohort with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥190 mg/dL.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients with a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥190 mg/dL seeking care at Montefiore from 2010 through 2020. Patients age, sex, and race and ethnicity. Patients were stratified by primary and secondary prevention. Cox regression analyses were used to adjust for demographic, clinical, and treatment variables.
Results: A total of 18 740 patients were included (37% non-Hispanic Black, 30% Hispanic, 12% non-Hispanic White, and 2% non-Hispanic Asian patients). The mean age was 53.9 years, and median follow-up was 5.2 years. Both high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and body mass index extremes were associated with higher mortality in univariate analyses. In adjusted models, higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels were associated with an increased 9-year mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05-1.11] and 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02-1.06] per 20-mg/dL increase, respectively). Clinical factors associated with higher mortality included male sex (adjusted HR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.08-1.58]), older age (adjusted HR, 1.19 per 5-year increase [95% CI, 1.15-1.23]), hypertension (adjusted HR, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.57-2.57]), chronic kidney disease (adjusted HR, 1.68 [95% CI, 1.36-2.09]), diabetes (adjusted HR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.50-2.15]), heart failure (adjusted HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.16-1.95]), myocardial infarction (adjusted HR, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.05-1.90]), and body mass index /m2 (adjusted HR, 3.36 [95% CI, 2.29-4.93]). A significant survival benefit was conferred by lipid-lowering therapy (adjusted HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.42-0.77]). In the primary prevention group, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol /dL was independently associated with higher mortality (adjusted HR, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.06-2.09]). Temporal trend analyses showed a reduction in statin use over time (P
Conclusions: In a large, diverse cohort of US patients with the severe hypercholesterolemia phenotype, we identified several patient characteristics associated with increased 9-year all-cause mortality and observed a decrease in statin use over time, in particular for primary prevention. Our results support efforts geared toward early recognition and consistent treatment for patients with severe hypercholesterolemia.


Volume, issue and pagination is not provided by the author/publisher.

Publication (Name of Journal)