Prevalence and predictors of cost-related medication nonadherence in individuals with cardiovascular disease: Results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey

Document Type



Office of the Provost; Cardiology


Medication nonadherence is highly prevalent among patients with chronic cardiovascular disease. Poor adherence has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Medication cost is a major driver for medication nonadherence. Utilizing data from the 2016 to 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey, we estimated the prevalence of cost-related medication nonadherence (CRMNA) among the overall population and among individuals who reported a history of diabetes, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), or hypertension. We then performed multivariable logistic regression to analyze sociodemographic factors associated with CRMNA. Our study population consisted of 142,577 individuals of whom 24% were older than 65 years, 47% were men, 66% were White, 17% Black, 35% had hypertension, 13% had diabetes mellitus, and 10% had ASCVD. CRMNA was reported in 10% of the overall population, 12% among those with hypertension, 17% among those with diabetes, and 17% among those with ASCVD. Age below 65 years, female gender, unemployment, lower income, lower educational attainment, having at least 1 comorbidity, and living in a state that did not expand Medicaid were independently associated with CRMNA. The prevalence of CRMNA increased with greater number of these high-risk sociodemographic factors. We conclude that the prevalence of CRMNA is 10% among U.S. adults overall and is higher among those with common chronic diseases. Risk factors associated with CRMNA should be addressed in order to improve adherence rates and health outcomes among high-risk individuals.


Issue and pagination are not provided by the author/publisher. This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.


Preventive medicine