Document Type



Cardiology; Office of the Provost


Pagination are not provided by the author/publisher. This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.


Background: Evaluating premature (age) mortality because of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by demographic and regional characteristics may inform public health interventions.
Methods and Results: We used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's WONDER (Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research) death certificate database to examine premature (age) age-adjusted AMI mortality rates per 100 000 and average annual percentage change from 1999 to 2019. Overall, the age-adjusted AMI mortality rate was 13.4 (95% CI, 13.3-13.5). Middle-aged adults, men, non-Hispanic Black adults, and rural counties had higher mortality than young adults, women, NH White adults, and urban counties, respectively. Between 1999 and 2019, the age-adjusted AMI mortality rate decreased at an average annual percentage change of -3.4 per year (95% CI, -3.6 to -3.3), with the average annual percentage change showing higher decline in age-adjusted AMI mortality rates among large (-4.2 per year [95% CI, -4.4 to -4.0]), and medium/small metros (-3.3 per year [95% CI, -3.5 to -3.1]) than rural counties (-2.4 per year [95% CI, -2.8 to -1.9]). Age-adjusted AMI mortality rates >90th percentile were distributed in the Southern states, and those with mortality (-4.3 per year [95% CI, -4.6 to -4.1]), the average annual percentage change showed deceleration in mortality since 2011 (-2.1 per year [95% CI, -2.4 to -1.8]). These trends were consistent across both sexes, all ethnicities and races, and urban/rural counties.
Conclusions: During the past 20 years, decline in premature AMI mortality has slowed down in the United States since 2011, with considerable heterogeneity across demographic groups, states, and urbanicity. Systemic efforts are mandated to address cardiovascular health disparities and outcomes among nonelderly adults.

Publication ( Name of Journal)

Journal of the American Heart Association