SGLT-2 inhibitors for patients with heart failure: What have we learned recently?

Document Type



Office of the Provost; Cardiology


Purpose of review: In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) and the purported protective effects for mitigating heart failure (HF)-related outcomes.
Recent findings: Major randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the cardiovascular safety and efficacy of SGLT-2i among patients without known HF and those with established HF with reduced ejection fraction or preserved ejection fraction (HFrEF and HFpEF respectively). Recent HF guidelines have incorporated SGLT-2i in HF treatment algorithms. SGLT-2i have emerged as a novel treatment for both prevention of HF and reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with existing HFrEF or HFpEF.


This work was published before the author joined Aga Khan University.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Current atherosclerosis reports