Background and objectives: Pediatric Stroke is a neurological disorder in which the patient suffers with two or more Pediatric stroke is a focal neurological deficit lasting more than 24 hours because of stenosis, occlusion or rupture of cerebral blood vessels. Variable etiological factors are involved ranging from cardiac, haematological, infectious, immune mediated to arteriopathies which is emerging as most important cause of arterial ischemic stroke in children. In this review article we will discuss paediatric stroke with its epidemiology, etiological factors in particular arteriopathies, diagnostic modalities, management protocols and outcome.
Methods: We searched stroke in Pubmed and found 15315 articles, narrowed down to stroke in children (3814) and selected 45 articles for review.
Review: Stroke in children is defined as a focal neurological deficit that persists for more than 24 hours and is caused by stenosis, occlusion or rupture of cerebral blood vessels. Stroke may be arterial, venous or because of occlusion of venous sinuses. Arterial strokes may be ischemic, haemorrhagic or ischemic-haemorrhagic. About half of strokes in children are of arterial ischemic strokes in contrast to adults where about 80-85% strokes are of arterial ischemic strokes. Stroke in children is comparable to brain tumors and is one of top ten common causes of death in children. Arterial ischemic stroke in children has significant risk of mortality and morbidity leading to functional disability of patient along with financial burden over family and society. In one study it was estimated that 10-25% of children with stroke die, 25% have recurrence and about 66% of children have neurological deficit after recovery from acute illness or have future epilepsy, behaviour disorder or learning disabilities. Early recognition and prompt treatment of paediatric stroke can reduce mortality, morbidity and in return can reduce both social and financial burden over society.
Conclusion: In this review article we will discuss paediatric strokes, epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, investigations, management protocols, preventive measures and outcome.
"Pediatric Stroke: A Review,"
Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS): Vol. 17:
3, Article 1.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pjns/vol17/iss3/1