A direct impact on the head can cause a Mild Traumatic Brain Injury or Concussion. It is a neuronal brain injury with or without loss of consciousness. Each year, approximately 69 million people are estimated to suffer from Concussion. Around 80-90% of these Concussion cases resolve within a week. The most commonly reported post-concussion symptoms include headache, cognitive changes, sleep disturbances, and depression. Essential in the approach to patients with concussion includes a detailed history taking and physical examination. Imaging modalities like Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of the brain may not show any significant changes; therefore more sensitive tests, like Functional MRI (fMRI), Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) and Positive Emission Tomography (PET) can be used. The treatment approach depends on the underlying cause and presentation. Patients should be encouraged to resume physical activity as soon as possible. Symptoms like headache can be treated with Analgesics. Sleep disturbances should be handled with proper sleep routine and drugs including Zolpidem. Cognitive disturbances can be improved with drugs and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. In all patients, follow-up and counseling are always required. We discuss the epidemiology, symptoms, and treatment approach of mild traumatic brain injury in the world and Pakistan.
Saleem, Sidra; Anwar, Arsalan; Asghar, Fahham; and Wasay, Muhammad
"Concussion: A review of epidemiology, presentation and treatment.,"
Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences (PJNS): Vol. 15
, Article 7.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pjns/vol15/iss2/7