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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a clinically complex, pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder with early appearing social communication deficits and repetitive sensory–motor behaviors.1 Although affected individuals differ significantly from one another, typically the disorder is characterized by impairment in social reciprocity and communication. Children usually have speech delays or lack of social interaction including: lack of eye contact, limited response to name, decreased interest in peers, and restricted shared attention with parents.1 Autistic individuals also exhibit repetitive behaviors like flapping, lining, or stacking objects and narrowly focused rigid interests such as paying particular attention to spinning objects.1 It usually manifests before 3 years of age and has a male predominance.2 Unavailability of reliable biomarkers makes it a purely clinical diagnosis3 and interestingly social skills impairment and inflexible behaviors are universally present in autistic children from different ethnic, social and cultural backgrounds including those diagnosed in Pakistan.

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