Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, East Africa; Institute for Educational Development, Karachi; Office of the Provost


This study presents the findings from a study which explored patterns in teachers’ knowledge about the nature of mathematics. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to 200 secondary school mathematics teachers teaching in public and private schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Exploratory factor analysis was performed which showed patterns in teachers’ view about the nature of mathematics. The analysis illustrates that teachers hold contradicting views about the nature of mathematics i.e. mathematics, both as discovered as well as invented body of knowledge. Moreover, teachers irrespective of their professional qualification, considered mathematical knowledge as ‘truth’, where mathematical rules can never be proved wrong. On the other hand, teachers expressed the progressive view of mathematics such as; they considered that mathematical knowledge is useful for scientific invention and for addressing societal issues. Based on the survey findings some key issues and questions have emerged which offered insight into mathematics teacher education programmes in the context of Pakistan as well as raising new questions for the second phase of this study.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Bulletin of Education and Research