Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This paper is about tracing global links in national education reforms in Pakistan. The paper tries to describe globalization and its general effects on national policies. It particularly highlights the effects of globalization on education reforms, which are: competitiveness-driven, finance-driven and equity-driven. In light of these global education reform patterns the paper explores the major educational reforms being pursued in Pakistan since 1990s. The paper argues that globalization has seriously challenged the national reform policies, which are now becoming more and more globally driven. Rather than out rightly rejecting all global policies, engaging critically with them is the stance of the authors.


Journal of Research and Reflections in Education