Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Force is a basic concept in the physical sciences. It is included in Pakistan’s national curriculum from the primary level through the higher levels. Because of the abstract nature of the concept of force, both students and teachers have alternative frameworks in this area. This was revealed in our classroom discussions on force during the Lower Secondary Science Module of the M.Ed. program at the Aga Khan University Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) in Karachi, Pakistan. In-depth discussions and a variety of activities we carried out while teaching about forces challenged our previous concepts and allowed us to think critically about the teaching and learning of forces. In this article, we reflect on our teaching and learning experiences and possible ways, in light of our new learning, to make the concept of force understandable to students.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Alberta Science Education Journal