Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This paper examines patterns in teachers’ understanding of conceptual and practical aspects of citizenship by analyzing survey data obtained from 320 teachers of public and private sector secondary schools in Karachi, Pakistan. The survey was conducted using a five-point-Likert scale ranging from ‘strongly disagree through ‘neutral’ to ‘strongly-agree’ and openended questions on citizen participation in politics. The survey questionnaire included 28 items that reflected various aspects of citizen rights and responsibilities. Principal Component Analysis (PCA)) showed several patterns in teacher’s conceptions of citizenship with reference to democratization. The analysis demonstrates that teachers’ conception of citizenship is shaped by confusions and contradictions in terms of their understanding of citizen rights and responsibilities wherein they conceptualized a passive and apolitical role for citizens. Nevertheless, the teachers also express dissatisfaction with quality of people’s participation in politics in the contemporary context of Pakistan. The study offers insights into teachers’ constructions of citizenship and highlight implications for the project of citizenship education in particular and democratization in general in the context of Pakistan.


Journal of Research and Reflections in Education