Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


Building on an examination of comparative and international literature and their research and development experiences, the authors highlight a number of continuities, changes, and issues between Soviet and post-Soviet, international and Central Asian experiences of borrowing and lending of education reforms. Even though Central Asian actors and institutions are not totally helpless victims and though international experts and NGOs appear well-meaning in these globalizing education transfers, the processes are leading toward reproducing global and local dependencies and inequalities.The trajectory of education reforms in Central Asia echo those of other developing countries. In response, the authors urge local policy makers and comparative educators to join in a critical and reflexive strategic venture of re-encountering and reshaping the global and neoliberal offers to serve the needs of interconnected local and global justice.


This work was published before the author (Sarfaroz Niyozov) joined Aga Khan University.

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Comparative and International Education Society of Canada (CIESC) in Comparative and International Education (formerly known as Canadian and International Education) 2012,

Available online:

Publication (Name of Journal)

Comparative and International Education / Éducation Comparée et Internationale

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.