School inspection and supervision in Pakistan: Approaches and issues

Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This article traces how the concept of educational inspection has evolved in Pakistan, especially in the province of Sindh, and discusses whether the existing inspection system helps to improve quality and establish accountability. The inspection system that originated in colonial days has evolved to incorporate the notion of using supervision to provide a range of support to school-based efforts to improve performance. The shift, however, has been in terminology only, since it has not signalled a major shift in how the job is carried out in practice. The article argues that as a strategy for establishing accountability and improving quality in education, inspection and supervision rely on several interdependent variables. Improvements in educational quality will require a balance among three factors: the availability of relevant and adequate physical, human, and financial resources; effective and empowered leadership; and functional monitoring, evaluation, and professional support for schools.

Publication (Name of Journal)