Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This paper explores the current practices of supervisors in Government Primary Schools in Karachi, Pakistan. Research participants included two supervisors, two head teachers and four primary school teachers. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews, informal discussions, documents analysis. Findings suggest that since, the supervisors are not provided with the TORs by Education department their practices are influenced by the way they are appointed and the ways they learn about their roles and responsibilities in the schools. Since supervisory practices are mostly hanging between supervision and monitoring, these neither fulfill the criteria of Supervision nor of Monitoring and Evaluation. Their routine work in schools is carried out through surprise visits. During those visits, they write visit notes in the visit logs maintained at schools. The language of these visit notes indicate that main concerns of the supervisors are dealing with the issues of teacher absenteeism and completion of courses. They seldom appear to be concerned with quality of teaching pedagogies in schools. Study concludes with recommendations for re-conceptualization of supervision as a moral practice. Other key recommendations focus professional development of supervisors, preparation of comprehensive TORs for supervisors and clustering primary schools with high schools, where supervisors can play the role of being liaison persons.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Educational Research