Document Type



Institute for Educational Development, Karachi


This paper tries to distinguish between the leadership and management constructs to clarify the confusion caused by the loose usage of the terms in popular language. The two concepts should be understood as distinct for theoretical clarifications but not to argue for any hierarchical relationship. The paper tries to define both management and leadership, and then describes several ways the leadership construct is presented in the literature followed by a resolution of leadership definitions. Finally, the paper shares four criteria to distinguish between the leadership and the management functions. The paper concludes by arguing that leadership should be seen as a process and both leadership and management be differentiated from leader and manager, the former being the functions and later being actors. In addition, it is also fundamentally important that distinguishing between the two does not imply that one is superior to the other.


Bulletin of Education & Research