Home-based cardiac rehabilitation: Development, implementation and outcome evaluation in patients with coronary artery diseases in Lahore, Pakistan - a mixed-methods study protocol

Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Introduction: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is an important strategy to bring cardiac patients back to a normal life after a cardiac event. The benefits of CR as part of secondary prevention are widely known among people who have undergone myocardial infarction or revascularisation. As evidenced by several systematic reviews and meta-analyses, home-based CR (HBCR) has similar or greater effects on health-related quality of life, health outcomes, physical activity, anxiety and unplanned visits to the emergency department as compared with centre-based CR. The purpose of this study is to develop a contextual HBCR intervention and evaluate its effects on quality of life, health behaviours, bio-physiological parameters and emergency hospital visits of patients with coronary artery diseases in Lahore, Pakistan.
Methods and analysis: This study will employ a mixed-method exploratory sequential research design. The researchers will invite 15-20 cardiac patients and 12-15 healthcare providers for semi-structured interviews in the qualitative phase of the study. Once the intervention is developed and validated through the qualitative phase, the outcomes will be evaluated through a single-blinded randomised control trial in the quantitative phase. A total of 118 patients with acute coronary syndrome will be recruited through a screening checklist and randomly allocated into the control and intervention groups (59 patients in each group). The inductive coding approach will be used for the thematic analysis of qualitative data, whereas the quantitative data will be analysed through descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS to see the difference within the groups, between groups and between three intervals.
Ethics and dissemination: The Ethical Review Committee of Aga Khan University and Mayo Hospital Lahore under the registration number 2023-8282-24191 and No/75749MH have approved this study protocol, respectively. The results of this study will be disseminated to participating patients (in the Urdu language), healthcare professionals and the public by publishing the manuscript in an open-access peer-reviewed journal and presenting it at different conferences.
Trial registration number: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12623000049673p).


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Publication (Name of Journal)

BMJ Open

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License