The scope of practice for primary cardiovascular disease prevention expanded to advanced practice providers: What does the data show?

Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Purpose of review: The review aims to explore the available literature on the role of advance practice providers (APPs) in the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD).
Recent findings: CVD are the major cause of death and disease with the growing burden of direct and indirect costs. Globally, one out of every three deaths is due to CVD. A total of 90% of CVD cases are due to modifiable risk factors which are preventable; however, challenges are faced by the already overburdened healthcare systems where the shortage of workforce is a common constraint. Different CVD preventive programs are working but, in a silo, and with different approaches except in few of the high-income countries where specialized workforce such as advance practice providers (APPs) is trained and employed in practice. Such initiatives are already proven more effective in terms of health and economic outcomes. Through an extensive literature search of APPs' role in the primary prevention of CVD, we identified very few high-income countries where APPs' role has already been integrated into the primary healthcare system. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), no such roles are defined. In these countries, either the overburdened physicians or any other health professionals (not trained in primary prevention of CVD) sometimes provide brief advice on CVD risk factors. Hence, prompt attention is appealed by the current scenario of CVD prevention specifically in LMICs.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Current Cardiology Reports