A pilot study of offering a positive disciplining module for public school teachers in Hyderabad, Pakistan: A quasi-experimental study

Document Type



Psychiatry; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


A pilot quasi-experimental study was conducted in which participants in the intervention group (n = 31) received positive learning environment through Positive Disciplining (PLEPD) module, while those in the control group (n = 29) received routine training. Teachers' knowledge and attitude regarding corporal punishment (CP) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) were measured before (T0), immediately after (T1) and 3 months after the intervention (T2). Descriptive analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to describe participants' characteristics and mean scores for knowledge and attitude among teachers. A total of 60 teachers completed the 16 hours training module. The overall response rate was >90%. Most participants recommended increasing the overall duration of the programme by reducing 4 to 2 hours per day, thus, increasing the period from 4 to 8 days of training. There were no differences between control and intervention groups at baseline regarding participant characteristics (p= > .05). The difference in depression (F = .0863, p = .357) and knowledge and attitude (F = 1.589, p = .213) scores among groups were not statistically significant. However, the mean score for knowledge and attitude followed a positive trend, increasing depression mean scores at T1 and T2. A positive disciplining programme is a feasible school intervention for public schools and may effectively reduce depression to ensure overall well-being


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Publication (Name of Journal)

International Journal of Psychology