Nurse-led culturally relevant smoking reduction intervention among cardiovascular and respiratory patients in Pakistan

Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Introduction: Socioeconomically deprived populations are at greater risk for smoking-induced diseases and death, such as cancers, and cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The initiation of a nurse-led smoking cessation program in clinical practice is an effective method to enhance smoking cessation among cardiovascular and respiratory patients in Pakistan. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nurse-led smoking reduction intervention performed at out-patient clinics in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: A single group pre-and post-test study was conducted on eligible patients (n = 83) with a typical profile of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in a tertiary care hospital from December 2020 to July 2021.
Intervention: The multi-modal nurse-led intervention consisted of two face-to-face motivational counseling (30-min) and free nicotine replacement therapy with telephonic counseling and follow-ups offered to all eligible patients for 2 months.
Results: The nurse-led intervention resulted in a significant decrease in daily cigarette consumption in most of the patients (75.9%) by 50% and 16.9% of the patients reported smoking abstinence (quitter) at 1-week follow-up (p < .001), verified by a CO breath test.
Conclusion: A nurse-managed smoking reduction intervention for even a short duration (2 months) in clinics is an effective approach in enhancing smoking abstinence and reduction among cardiovascular and respiratory patients.


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Publication (Name of Journal)

Public Health Nursing