School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan
Background: Globally, hypertension is the leading non-communicable disease and strongest predictor of cardiovascular diseases. To mitigate and prevent hypertension-related complications, self-care behavior adaptation has proven to be vital. In this study, we examined the six clinically prescribed levels of self-care as prescribed by the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure and its predictors among a select sample of hypertensive individuals in Karachi, Pakistan.
Methods: This study reports the cross-sectional survey of a sequential mixed method study which assessed the levels of self-care of hypertensive individuals residing in an urban cosmopolitan setting within Karachi Pakistan. Four hundred and two patients were screened using the H-SCALE questionnaire, while socio-demographic predictors of self-care and level of knowledge of hypertension were identified using a study-specific checklist. Self-care was assessed against six clinical domains including medication adherence, diet, weight management, physical activity, and abstinence from alcohol.
Results: Participants were recruited from the two largest tertiary care hospitals in Karachi. Good knowledge about hypertension, including its causes, management, and complications was reported by 4.47% of the participants. Highest levels of self-care adherence were found for abstinence from alcohol (100%), smoking cessation (83.33%), and medication compliance (71.89%), whereas lowest levels were found for diet (27.11%), and physical activity (24.88%). In terms of predictors for self-care, age, male gender, and self-checking of blood pressure at home, followed by the level of education were the most common predictors for each self-care behavior in the given population.
Conclusion: Overall knowledge of self-care for hypertension is sub-optimal among hypertensive patients in Pakistan which is reflected in their behaviors. There is a need to introduce healthcare educational programs in Pakistan which can improve self-care behaviors of hypertensive individuals and potentially reduce the prevalence of associated cardiovascular diseases and its complications.
International Journal of General Medicine
Gul, R. B.,
(2021). Levels and predictors of self-care among patients with hypertension in Pakistan. International Journal of General Medicine, 14, 1023-1032.
Available at: https://ecommons.aku.edu/pakistan_fhs_son/443
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