Early detection of breast cancer a need in LMICs

Document Type

Review Article


School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women both in Low-and-Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) like Nigeria, Pakistan and India and in High-Income Countries (HICs). These include Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Germany, Italy, Australia, New Zealand, Switzerland, and Sweden. However, breast cancer related mortality is high in LMICs where the majority of the cases are diagnosed at the late stages of the disease. Factors contributing to late diagnosis include lack of awareness about breast cancer, poverty, cultural and religious beliefs, misconceptions about the disease, fear of mastectomy, women’s lack of autonomy in health-related decision making, lack of adequate diagnosis, and treatment facilities. Consequently, when diagnosed the disease is at the 3rd or 4th stage of cancer. Whereas, more than 90% of women are diagnosed early when they have a locoregional disease in HICs. The early diagnosis of cancer, combined with an accessible, and affordable effective treatment, results in improvements in both the stage of cancer at presentation and mortality from cancer.


Acta Scientific Women's Health