Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Cardiovascular diseases possess a major cause for fatality and disability the world over. Since last several decades, the rates of cardiovascular diseases-related deaths have decreased in a number of high-income countries but increased in low- and middle-income countries with around 80% of the burden. Despite the seriousness of cardiovascular diseases in low- and middle-income countries, minimal attention is given to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases risk factors in South Asia, particularly in Pakistan. In addition, economic and political instability is accelerating the rates of cardiovascular diseases in the country. Practical efforts are required to enhance the understanding of cardiovascular diseases risk factors such as diet, physical activity, and tobacco-control policies to support prevention and control at the population level. This paper reviews the major modifiable risk factors in Pakistan, highlights available preventive services, and presents the most likely ways to promote risk-factor reduction.


JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association