Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Introduction/Background: The study was conducted in urban Karachi, Pakistan to investigate women’s perceptions and attitudes towards male dominancy, female autonomy, and controlling behavior of husbands.
Method: This was investigated in a population based study with a cross-sectional design, involving married women aged 25 to 60 years. A Structured questionnaire developed by World Health Organisation (WHO) on violence was used. Community midwives interviewed these married women living in pre-selected low, middle and upper socio-economic areas of urban Karachi, Pakistan.
Findings: This study revealed women’s overall perception regarding male dominancy and controlling behavior and highlighted this attitude, as being acceptable to women. It was found that 96.7% (n=734) of females perceived their husband as authority figure in the family and 99.2% (n=753) consider themselves as good wives by being obedient to their husbands. Not only this, 88.9% (n=675) females perceived performing sex unwillingly with their husbands as an obligation.
Conclusion: Perceptions of women regarding gender discrimination and male dominancy play a vital role in accepting gender discrimination. This study identified the declining status of women as compared to men in marital life due to various socio-cultural and religious beliefs, which promote controlling behaviour by the male partner. This is the result of learned behaviour and social norms in a patriarchal society adapted by women.


Arts and Social Sciences Journal