Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


This study was aimed at identifying practices during the menstrual, partum and postpartum periods posing possible risk factors contributing towards secondary infertility in women of a selected population in Karachi, Pakistan. A matched case-control study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2004. Four hundred cases were selected from five infertility clinics affiliated with tertiary-care hospitals, and 400 age-matched controls were recruited from the neighbourhood of each case. After taking written consents, trained interviewers conducted interviews using a pretested structured questionnaire. Factors found to be independently associated with secondary infertility were: previous delivery at an unclean place (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-2.6), delivery by a birth attendant without washing hands with soap (AOR=4.2, 95% CI 2.36-7.47), use of unclean material for absorption of lochia (AOR=3.1, 95% CI 1.5-6.5), non-washing of perineal area after urination/defaecation (AOR=7.1, 95% CI 1.4-35.7), and insertion of home-made vaginal medications (AOR=2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.7). Since these factors are preventable/modifiable to a great extent, public-health interventions are, thus, recommended to address these risk factors at various levels.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition