Gender differences in factors associated with prehospital delay among acute coronary syndrome patients in Pakistan.

Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan



To identify gender differences in prehospital delay time (PDT) and its associated factors among acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients.


Descriptive cross-sectional comparative study.


This study was conducted among 249 ACS patients at two tertiary care hospitals of a large metropolitan city of Pakistan. Data were collected through the modified Response to Symptoms Questionnaire.


The median PDT of women was found to be 7 hours, compared to 3.5 hours among men (p = .001). Results of the regression analysis indicated that most women delayed because of social factors, such as attendants' responses to their symptoms (p = .002), and because they were worried about expenses required for the treatment (p = .002); yet, most men delayed owing to individual factors, such as waiting for symptoms to subside (p< .001), and not recognizing the symptoms as being cardiac related (p< .001). Having anxiety and lack of knowledge about symptoms was associated with extended PDT among both genders.


Women delayed longer than men in seeking treatment for their ACS symptoms. Different factors were associated with PDT in women and men. This study may provide important insights for designing interventional studies to reduce PDT in Pakistani ACS patients.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Transcultural Nursing