Document Type



School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan



The concept of resilience is very crucial in promoting positive psychological well-being. However, this construct was never looked among married women of Karachi, Pakistan. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and the associated risk factors of resilience in Pakistan.


It was a cross-sectional survey, using the Wagnild Resilience Scale (RS) to assess resilience, Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) for measuring depression and Trait Wellbeing Inventory for determining Life Satisfaction. Systematic sampling was employed to enroll 636 participants of aged 20 to 40 years living in two urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. Prevalence ratio was computed with their 95% confidence interval.


A total of 636 married women participated in the study. The average age of females with low resilience was 29.8 (5.7) whereas the mean age of females with high resilience was 31.1 (5.7). Around 90% of all the participants could speak in Urdu. The prevalence of low resilience among women was 21.9%. Moreover, the prevalence of depression among low resilience group was 43.9% whereas the mean life satisfaction score among females with low resilience was lower than females with high resilience. The females who had low resilience were younger and had no formal/informal education as compared to their counterparts. After controlling for other variables, the prevalence of low resilience was 1.78 times more among depressed females as compared to the non-depressed with a 95% CI: (1.27-2.51). Moreover with every one unit increase in the life satisfaction scores, the prevalence of low resilience decreased 9%. Furthermore, age and informal schooling were also found to be significantly associated with resilience.


Depression and life satisfaction are the potential modifiable risk factors for resilience and hence we can improve resilience through interventions that may focus on reducing depression and improving satisfaction towards life. Our study also recommends that health care professionals should be educated about these modifiable risk factors to bring about a change in the society and reduce the mental health illness by promoting constructive adaptation.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Open Journal of Epidemiology

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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Nursing Commons