Document Type



Paediatrics and Child Health


Background: A study from a tertiary care center in Pakistan demonstrated that a leadership development intervention led to improved family experience of care outcomes. The objective of the current paper is to assess the implementation of this intervention and identify barriers and facilitators to inform sustainability and scalability.
Methods: A working group designed the intervention using a theory-of-change model to strengthen leadership development to achieve greater employee engagement. The interventions included: i) purpose and vision through purpose-driven leadership skills trainings; ii) engaging managers via on-the-job mentorship programme for managers, iii) employee voice i.e., facilitation of upward communication to hear the employees using Facebook group and subsequently inviting them to lead quality improvement (QI) projects; and iv) demonstrating integrity by streamlining actions taken based on routine patient experience data. Implementation outcomes included acceptability, adoption, fidelity across degree & quality of execution and facilitators & barriers to the implementation. Data analyzed included project documentation records and posts on the Facebook group. Analysis indicated acceptability and adoption of the intervention by the employees as178 applications for different QI projects were received. Leadership sessions were delivered to 455 (75%) of the employees and social media communication was effective to engage employees. However, mentorship package was not rolled out nor the streamlined processes for action on patient experience data achieved the desired fidelity. Only 6 QI projects were sustained for at least a year out of the 18 approved by the working group. Facilitators included leadership involvement, real-time recognition and feedback and value-creation through participation by national and international celebrities. Challenges identified were the short length of the intervention and incentives not being institutionalized. The authors conclude that leadership development through short training sessions and on-going communications facilitated by social media were the key processes that helped achieve the outcomes. However, a long-term strategy is needed for individual managerial behaviours to sustain.


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BMC Health Services Research

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.