Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology


Congenital cardiac anomalies are the most common anomalies, with an estimated incidence of about 4-13 per 1000 live births. Proper perinatal and neonatal management is dependent upon accurate prenatal diagnosis. Approximately 10% of foetuses with cardiac abnormalities have identified risk factors; hence, most of the anomalies occur in pregnancies without prenatal risk factors. Foetal echocardiography allows for prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease and serves as a routine screening tool for congenital heart defects. Advanced technology, has not only allowed more accurate and early detection of cardiac abnormalities but has also improved the care and outcome of selected foetuses with severe cardiac malformations or arrhythmias. It can also identify patients for in-utero cardiac interventions. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease has allowed for better counseling and preparation of families regarding the expected prenatal development of the foetus as well as the anticipated postnatal management strategy and prognosis.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association