Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology; School of Nursing and Midwifery, Pakistan


Objective: A maternal sepsis management bundle for resource-limited settings was developed through a synthesis of evidence and international consensus. This bundle, called 'FAST-M' consists of: Fluids, Antibiotics, Source control, assessment of the need to Transport/Transfer to a higher level of care and ongoing Monitoring (of the mother and neonate). The study aimed to adapt the FAST-M intervention including the bundle care tools for early identification and management of maternal sepsis in a low-resource setting of Pakistan and identify potential facilitators and barriers to its implementation.
Setting: The study was conducted at the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, which is a tertiary referral public sector hospital in Hyderabad.
Design and participants: A qualitative exploratory study comprising key informant interviews and a focus group discussion was conducted with healthcare providers (HCPs) working in the study setting between November 2020 and January 2021, to ascertain the potential facilitators and barriers to the implementation of the FAST-M intervention. Interview guides were developed using the five domains of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals and process of implementation.
Results: Four overarching themes were identified, the hindering factors for implementation of the FAST-M intervention were: (1) Challenges in existing system such as a shortage of resources and lack of quality assurance; and (2) Clinical practice variation that includes lack of sepsis guidelines and documentation; the facilitating factors identified were: (3) HCPs' perceptions about the FAST-M intervention and their positive views about its execution and (4) Development of HCPs readiness for FAST-M implementation that aided in identifying solutions to potential hindering factors at their clinical setting.
Conclusion: The study has identified potential gaps and probable solutions to the implementation of the FAST-M intervention, with modifications for adaptation in the local context.
Trial registration number: ISRCTN17105658.


Pagination is not provided by the author/publisher. This work was published before Raheel joined Aga Khan University.

Publication (Name of Journal)

BMJ Open

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.