Document Type



Obstetrics and Gynaecology


The effects of vaginal bleeding during first and second trimester on pregnancy outcomes was assessed in a hospital-based population of 268 non-diabetic women. The group of non-bleeders comprised 173 females whereas, there were 71 females with first and 24 with second trimester bleeding. Fetal loss (abortion) occurred in 34% of first trimester and 25% of second trimester bleeders. Low birth weight and preterm delivery were significantly associated with second trimester haemorrhage. The results suggest that first and second trimester vaginal bleeding correlates with adverse infant outcomes.

Publication (Name of Journal)

Journal of Pakistan Medical Association