Document Type



Pathology and Laboratory Medicine; Surgery; Neurosurgery


Introduction: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest cranial tumors occurring in adults. Various biomarkers have been tested for their significance in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of GBM. Some well-studied markers in GBM are Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), Murine double minute 2 (MDM2), Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR), and p53. The aim of this study was to investigate the protein expression of these markers in GBM patients of Pakistan.
Methods: A total of 102 surgically resected formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from patients diagnosed and treated at Aga Khan University Hospital were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for IDH1, MDM2, EGFR, and p53 was performed using Dako EnVision System and respective monoclonal antibodies. Survival analysis was performed to check association of markers protein expression with prognosis in GBM patients.
Results: There were 73 males and 29 females in this study, with a median age of 49 years at the time diagnosis. Overexpression of molecular markers was as follows: 52% for EGFR, 26% for p53, 72% for IDH1, and 83% for MDM2. We did observe that EGFR was significantly associated with increased age of our patients and with worse survival. Age > 40 years was a predictor for worse prognosis as well.
Conclusion: EGFR overexpression and advanced age were worse prognostic indicators.


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Clinical Medicine Insights. Oncology